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Appreciation of Schubert's music while he was alive was limited to a relatively small circle of admirers in Vienna, but interest in his work increased greatly in the decades following his death. Felix Mendelssohn , Robert Schumann , Franz Liszt , Johannes Brahms and other 19th-century composers discovered and championed his works.
Today, Schubert is ranked among the greatest composers of Western classical music and his music continues to be popular. Of Franz Theodor and Elisabeth's fourteen children one of them illegitimate, born in ,  nine died in infancy. At the age of five, Schubert began to receive regular lessons from his father, and a year later he was enrolled at his father's school. Although it is not known exactly when he received his first musical instruction, he was given piano lessons by his brother Ignaz, but they lasted for a very short time as Schubert excelled him within a few months.
I was amazed when Franz told me, a few months after we began, that he had no need of any further instruction from me, and that for the future he would make his own way. And in truth his progress in a short period was so great that I was forced to acknowledge in him a master who had completely distanced and out stripped me, and whom I despaired of overtaking.
His father gave him his first violin lessons when he was eight years old, training him to the point where he could play easy duets proficiently. Holzer would often assure Schubert's father, with tears in his eyes, that he had never had such a pupil as Schubert,  and the lessons may have largely consisted of conversations and expressions of admiration. Schubert wrote his earliest string quartets for this ensemble.
Young Schubert first came to the attention of Antonio Salieri , then Vienna's leading musical authority, in , when his vocal talent was recognised. At the Stadtkonvikt, he was introduced to the overtures and symphonies of Mozart , the symphonies of Joseph Haydn and his younger brother Michael Haydn , and the overtures and symphonies of Beethoven , a composer for whom he developed admiration. The precocious young student "wanted to modernize" Zumsteeg's songs, as reported by Joseph von Spaun , Schubert's friend.
In those early days, the financially well-off Spaun furnished the impoverished Schubert with much of his manuscript paper. In the meantime, Schubert's genius began to show in his compositions; Salieri decided to start training him privately in music theory and even in composition. According to Ferdinand, the boy's first composition for piano was a Fantasy for four hands ; his first song, Klagegesang der Hagar , would be written a year later.
At the end of , Schubert left the Stadtkonvikt and returned home for teacher training at the St Anna Normal- hauptschule. In , he entered his father's school as teacher of the youngest pupils. For over two years young Schubert endured severe drudgery;  there were, however, compensatory interests even then. He continued to take private lessons in composition from Salieri, who gave Schubert more actual technical training than any of his other teachers, before they parted ways in In , Schubert met a young soprano named Therese Grob , daughter of a local silk manufacturer, and wrote several of his liturgical works including a "Salve Regina" and a "Tantum Ergo" for her; she was also a soloist in the premiere of his Mass No.
One of Schubert's most prolific years was He composed over 20, bars of music, more than half of which were for orchestra, including nine church works despite being agnostic ,   a symphony, and about Lieder. Another friend, Johann Mayrhofer , was introduced to him by Spaun in Throughout , Schubert lived at home with his father.
He continued to teach at the school and give private musical instruction, earning enough money for his basic needs, including clothing, manuscript paper, pens, and ink, but with little to no money left over for luxuries. This was probably Schubert's first visit away from home or school. In the musicologist Maynard Solomon suggested that Schubert was erotically attracted to men,  a thesis that has, at times, been heatedly debated.
Significant changes happened in Schober, a student and of good family and some means, invited Schubert to room with him at his mother's house. The proposal was particularly opportune, for Schubert had just made the unsuccessful application for the post of kapellmeister at Laibach, and he had also decided not to resume teaching duties at his father's school.
By the end of the year, he became a guest in Schober's lodgings. In early , Schober introduced Schubert to Johann Michael Vogl , a prominent baritone twenty years Schubert's senior. Vogl, for whom Schubert went on to write a great many songs, became one of Schubert's main proponents in Viennese musical circles.
In late , Schubert's father gained a new position at a school in Rossau , not far from Lichtental. Schubert rejoined his father and reluctantly took up teaching duties there. In early , he applied for membership in the prestigious Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde , intending to gain admission as an accompanist, but also so that his music, especially the songs, could be performed in the evening concerts. He was rejected on the basis that he was "no amateur", although he had been employed as a schoolteacher at the time and there were professional musicians already among the society's membership.
The pay was relatively good, and his duties teaching piano and singing to the two daughters were relatively light, allowing him to compose happily. Schubert may have written his Marche Militaire in D major D. During the early s, Schubert was part of a close-knit circle of artists and students who had social gatherings together that became known as Schubertiads.
The tight circle of friends with which Schubert surrounded himself was dealt a blow in early Schubert and four of his friends were arrested by the Austrian police, who in the aftermath of the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars were on their guard against revolutionary activities and suspicious of any gathering of youth or students.
One of Schubert's friends, Johann Senn , was put on trial, imprisoned for over a year, and then permanently forbidden to enter Vienna. The other four, including Schubert, were "severely reprimanded", in part for "inveighing against [officials] with insulting and opprobrious language".
The incident may have played a role in a falling-out with Mayrhofer, with whom he was living at the time. Schubert, who was only a little more than five feet tall,  was nicknamed "Schwammerl" by his friends, which Gibbs describes as translating to "Tubby" or "Little Mushroom". Gibbs also claims he may have occasionally drunk to excess, noting that references to Schubert's heavy drinking " The compositions of and show a marked advance in development and maturity of style.
Psalm" D. Now he began to assume a more prominent position, addressing a wider public. The production of the two operas turned Schubert's attention more firmly than ever in the direction of the stage, where, for a variety of reasons, he was almost completely unsuccessful.
All in all, he embarked on twenty stage projects, each of them failures which were quickly forgotten. In , Alfonso und Estrella was refused, partly owing to its libretto written by Schubert's friend Franz von Schober. Despite his operatic failures, Schubert's reputation was growing steadily on other fronts. In , the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde finally accepted him as a performing member, and the number of performances of his music grew remarkably.
In , Schubert made the acquaintance of both Weber and Beethoven , but little came of it in either case: however, Beethoven is said to have acknowledged the younger man's gifts on a few occasions. On his deathbed, Beethoven is said to have looked into some of the younger man's works and exclaimed: "Truly, the spark of divine genius resides in this Schubert!
Despite his preoccupation with the stage, and later with his official duties, Schubert wrote much music during these years. He completed the Mass in A-flat major , D. Also in that year, symptoms of syphilis first appeared. He also wrote the Sonata in A minor for arpeggione and piano D.
In love with a Countess of youthful grace, —A pupil of Galt's; in desperate case Young Schubert surrenders himself to another, And fain would avoid such affectionate pother . The setbacks of previous years were compensated by the prosperity and happiness of Publication had been moving more rapidly, the stress of poverty was for a time lightened, and in the summer he had a pleasant holiday in Upper Austria where he was welcomed with enthusiasm.
The original only opens with the greeting "Ave Maria", which also recurs only in the refrain. From to , Schubert resided continuously in Vienna, except for a brief visit to Graz , Austria, in In , he dedicated a symphony D. Later in the year came the String Quartet No. The works of his last two years reveal a composer entering a new professional and compositional stage. In , Schubert wrote the song cycle Winterreise D.
The orchestra of the Gesellschaft reportedly read through the symphony at a rehearsal, but never scheduled a public performance of it. The reasons continue to be unknown, although the difficulty of the symphony is the possible explanation. On 26 March , the anniversary of Beethoven's death, Schubert gave, for the only time in his career, a public concert of his own works.
In the midst of this creative activity, his health deteriorated. By the late s, Schubert's health was failing and he confided to some friends that he feared that he was near death. In the late summer of , he saw the physician Ernst Rinna, who may have confirmed Schubert's suspicions that he was ill beyond cure and likely to die soon. He was generally unable to retain solid food and his condition worsened.
Five days before Schubert's death, his friend, violinist Karl Holz , and his string quartet visited him to play for him. The last musical work he had wished to hear was Beethoven's String Quartet No. Schubert died in Vienna, aged 31, on 19 November , at the apartment of his brother Ferdinand. The cause of his death was officially diagnosed as typhoid fever , though other theories have been proposed, including the tertiary stage of syphilis.
In , a memorial to Franz Schubert was erected in Vienna's Stadtpark. Schubert was remarkably prolific, writing over 1, works in his short career. His compositional style progressed rapidly throughout his short life. He completed eight orchestral overtures and seven complete symphonies, in addition to fragments of six others. While he composed no concertos, he did write three concertante works for violin and orchestra. Schubert wrote a large body of music for solo piano, including eleven incontrovertibly completed sonatas and at least nine more in varying states of completion, [a] numerous miscellaneous works and many short dances, in addition to producing a large set of works for piano four hands.
He also wrote over fifty chamber works, including some fragmentary works. Schubert's sacred output includes seven masses, one oratorio and one requiem, among other mass movements and numerous smaller compositions. In July the Austrian composer Ernst Krenek discussed Schubert's style, abashedly admitting that he had at first "shared the wide-spread opinion that Schubert was a lucky inventor of pleasing tunes Bach or Beethoven ".
Krenek wrote that he reached a completely different assessment after close study of Schubert's pieces at the urging of his friend and fellow composer Eduard Erdmann. Krenek pointed to the piano sonatas as giving "ample evidence that [Schubert] was much more than an easy-going tune-smith who did not know, and did not care, about the craft of composition.
That "appetite for experimentation" manifests itself repeatedly in Schubert's output in a wide variety of forms and genres, including opera, liturgical music , chamber and solo piano music, and symphonic works. Perhaps most familiarly, his adventurousness is reflected in his notably original sense of modulation; for example, the second movement of the String Quintet D.
Although Schubert was clearly influenced by the Classical sonata forms of Beethoven and Mozart , his formal structures and his developments tend to give the impression more of melodic development than of harmonic drama. It was in the genre of the Lied that Schubert made his most indelible mark. Leon Plantinga remarks that "in his more than six hundred Lieder he explored and expanded the potentialities of the genre, as no composer before him. His last collection of songs published in after his death, Schwanengesang , is also an innovative contribution to German lieder literature, as it features poems by different poets, namely Ludwig Rellstab , Heine, and Johann Gabriel Seidl.
The Wiener Theaterzeitung , writing about Winterreise at the time, commented that it was a work that "none can sing or hear without being deeply moved". When Schubert died he had around opus numbers published, mainly songs, chamber music and smaller piano compositions. An important step towards the recovery of the neglected works was the journey to Vienna which the music historian George Grove and the composer Arthur Sullivan made in October The travellers unearthed the manuscripts of six of the symphonies, parts of the incidental music to Rosamunde , the Mass No.
With these discoveries, Grove and Sullivan were able to inform the public of the existence of these works; in addition, they were able to copy the fourth and sixth symphonies, the Rosamunde incidental music, and the overture to Die Freunde von Salamanka.
Since relatively few of Schubert's works were published in his lifetime, only a small number of them have opus numbers assigned, and even in those cases, the sequence of the numbers does not give a good indication of the order of composition. Austrian musicologist Otto Erich Deutsch — is known for compiling the first comprehensive catalogue of Schubert's works.
Confusion arose quite early over the numbering of Schubert's late symphonies. Schubert's last completed symphony, the Great C major D , was assigned the numbers 7, 8, 9 and 10, depending on publication. Similarly the Unfinished D has been indicated with the numbers 7, 8, and 9.
An even broader confusion arose over the numbering of the piano sonatas , with numbering systems ranging from 15 to 23 sonatas. Schubert was also familiar with instruments by Viennese piano builder Conrad Graf. A feeling of regret for the loss of potential masterpieces caused by Schubert's early death at age 31 was expressed in the epitaph on his large tombstone written by Grillparzer: "Here music has buried a treasure, but even fairer hopes.
Just before he died, when he wrote his beautiful two-cello String Quintet in C, he said very modestly that he was trying to learn a little more about counterpoint, and he was perfectly right. We'll never know in what direction he was going or would have gone. For instance, Robert Schumann said: "It is pointless to guess at what more [Schubert] might have achieved.
In 31 years, he lived more than other people would live in years, and it is needless to speculate what could he have written had he lived another 50 years. It's irrelevant, just like with Mozart; these are the two natural geniuses of music. Schubert's chamber music continues to be popular. In a survey conducted by the ABC Classic FM radio station in , Schubert's chamber works dominated the field, with the Trout Quintet ranked first, the String Quintet in C major ranked second, and the Notturno in E-flat major for piano trio ranked third.
Furthermore, eight more of his chamber works were among the ranked pieces: both piano trios, the String Quartet No. The New York Times ' chief music critic Anthony Tommasini , who ranked Schubert as the fourth greatest composer, wrote of him:. You have to love the guy, who died at 31, ill, impoverished and neglected except by a circle of friends who were in awe of his genius. For his hundreds of songs alone — including the haunting cycle Winterreise , which will never release its tenacious hold on singers and audiences — Schubert is central to our concert life Schubert's first few symphonies may be works in progress.
But the Unfinished and especially the Great C major Symphony are astonishing. The latter one paves the way for Bruckner and prefigures Mahler. From the s through the s, Franz Liszt transcribed and arranged several of Schubert's works, particularly the songs. Liszt, who was a significant force in spreading Schubert's work after his death, said Schubert was "the most poetic musician who ever lived.
Britten, an accomplished pianist, accompanied many of Schubert's Lieder and performed many piano solo and duet works. German electronic music group Kraftwerk has an instrumental piece titled Franz Schubert on their album Trans-Europe Express. In , the th anniversary of Schubert's birth was marked in the musical world by festivals and performances dedicated to his music.
In Vienna, there were ten days of concerts, and the Emperor Franz Joseph gave a speech recognising Schubert as the creator of the art song, and one of Austria's favourite sons. In , Schubert Week was held in Europe and the United States to mark the centenary of the composer's death. Works by Schubert were performed in churches, in concert halls, and on radio stations.
Schubert's music has also been featured in numerous post- silent era films, including Walt Disney 's Fantasia , which features Ave Maria D. Otto Erich Deutsch , working in the first half of the 20th century, was probably the preeminent scholar of Schubert's life and music. In addition to the catalogue of Schubert's works, he collected and organized a great deal of material about Schubert, some of which remains in print.
The following sources illustrate the confusion around the numbering of Schubert's late symphonies. The B minor Unfinished Symphony is variously published as No. List of compositions by genre. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Schubert disambiguation. Arpeggione Sonata, D. Allegro moderato. Piano Sonata in B-flat major, D. Molto moderato. Symphony No. See also: List of songs by Franz Schubert and Schubert's song cycles.
Berkeley, California: Univ. The Musical Times , pp. Barbara Haggh ed. Paris-Tours: Minerve, pp. The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 February Franz Schubert's Winterreise is the greatest, and the most bleakly melancholy, of all song cycles. Franz Schubert. As far as duets go, Marvin Gaye was never better than when he was singing with Tammi Terrell.
Johnny Cash and June Carter were about a year away from getting hitched when they released this song about a married couple who lost their spark. Carter laughs off his threats, certain the ladies of Jackson will play him for a fool. The crossover success is no surprise. Everyone could imagine Kenny and Dolly rowing off into the sunset together. As listeners everywhere daydreamed about being whisked away from their boring jobs by attractive suitors, the single shot to No. The single spent a whopping nine weeks atop the charts—and for good reason.
Writing on assignment for the Brooke Shields film Endless Love , Lionel Richie outdid himself with a gorgeous melody and tender set of lyrics. Then he and Diana Ross sang the sucker like a still-smitten married couple enjoying a candlelight dinner away from the kids. Former Chicago frontman and unrepentant balladeer Peter Cetera joined forces with then-unknown Contemporary Christian artist Amy Grant for this chart-topper. Mary J. Blige jumped on the remix. Her love interest, Danny John Travolta , naturally finds this electrifying.
But the message driving this chart-topping mega-seller is that Danny also needs to compromise a little and clean up his act. Travolta and Newton-John make this romantic negotiation sound like a giddy spin around the Tilt-A-Whirl. Years beyond his greatest successes with The Righteous Brothers , a bassy Bill Medley rides with Warnes over a bubbly soft-rock beat. The result is a perennial wedding-reception dance-floor filler-upper.
Linda Ronstadt and Aaron Neville meet at an emotional crossroads on this smash. But they know they love each other, and that might be enough to see them through. Over a mildly thumping hip-hop beat, Usher and Keys reminisce about dating years earlier, before either was famous—and before they went their separate ways. Although they sing their guts out, Gaga and Cooper never sound like they have all the answers. All they know is that shallow—as in mindless, superficial, and easy—is no way to live.
George Michael wisely pulled back and let Aretha Franklin do her thing while the two were recording this soul-pop chartbuster. John Doe basically invented the punk-rock duet in his days with X , the legendary L.
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