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Moreover, the discovery also occurred in a time of political and social ferment for Aboriginal people, in which civil rights and land rights movements were being fought after long years of repression and discrimination. The discovery provided powerful evidence to be used in land rights claims, and furthered the pride of indigenous communities. At the same time, the attitude of scientists and researchers often revealed a lack of respect for the traditional owners of the land.
The deep connection of Aboriginal people to their land, expressed through Dreamtime oral traditions, makes the removal of Mungo Man and Mungo Lady a particularly devastating loss for Australian aboriginal history. In turn, scientists asserted the universal value of Mungo Man and Mungo Lady for science and national identity.
Digs at Lake Mungo were met with protests from local people, and from the late s, an embargo. In , the parties agreed to a conference at Lake Mungo, in which a compromise was met, in which both would respect the others interests in an collaborative approach.
Further human remains have since remained in situ. In , Mungo Lady was returned to Lake Mungo. In , a widely publicised editorial by Jim Bowler — who had a deep respect for Aboriginal spiritual belief drawn from his own Celtic-inflected Catholicism — called for the remains to be moved back. The campaign would prove successful, and in , Mungo Man was returned to his home, in an event marked by a traditional ceremony and burial.
If Mungo Lady and Mungo Man provided powerful evidence of the longevity of Aboriginal civilisation in Australia, the Budj Bim Cultural Landscape in Victoria is a powerful testament to the diversity of that civilisation. A complex aquaculture network, skilfully designed to catch the kooyang, or short-finned eel, the Cultural Landscape challenges stereotypes that all Aboriginal peoples were nomadic hunter-gatherers. The site centres around the dormant volcano Budj Bim, formerly known as Mount Eccles.
Budj Bim was formed by volcanic eruptions around 27, years ago. The volcano erupted several times, most recently around 7, years ago, during which lava spread over 50 kilometres to the south, forming a network of lakes, ponds, and swamps — including Tae Rak Lake Condah and the Condah Swamp — rich in aquatic life. From this, the Gunditjmara people created a complex set of eel traps, drawing upon their knowledge of the rise and fall of water levels, and of the geologic processes that shaped them.
They dug shallow channels — some up to metres long — into the rock, and built weirs and dams out of volcanic rock. By controlling the water, they were able to systematically trap, store and harvest kooyang. The Gunditjmara people also constructed long eel baskets, made of river reeds and steel grass, to regulate and trap the eels according to their size.
Eels were kept fat in holding ponds, and smoked in the hollows of large trees. There is evidence of permanent stone dwellings near the traps, indicating that a village was set up nearby — powerfully busting the myth that all Aboriginal people were nomadic hunter-gatherers. The Budj Bim Cultural Landscape is entwined with the cultural traditions of the Gunditjmara people, passed down through the generations by oral history and cultural practice.
Budj Bim figures heavily in the Gunditjmara creation story. With the support of state and federal governments, Gunditjmara traditional owners prepared a report detailing the archaeological and cultural importance of the site. Awarded World Heritage Status, the site joins over twenty other Australian locations on the list.
Since the discovery of Mungo Man and Mungo Lady, the date of first arrival of humans on the Australian continent has been pushed back further and further by new scientific discoveries. Immediately after the discovery, consensus was that the first Australians reached the continent around 40, years ago.
Excavations led by Jones at the Madjedbebe rockshelter in Kakadu, Northern Territory in , suggested that there was evidence for human occupation in Australia thousand years ago. Questioned by many archaeologists at the time, subsequent investigation from to by University of Queensland researchers used radiocarbon dating to suggest that the area was settled 65, years ago — suggesting that humans reached Australia long before Homo sapiens arrived in Europe 45, years ago.
As historian Billy Griffiths points out in Deep Time Dreaming: Uncovering Ancient Australia, the arrival of humans to Australia is of international importance for understanding human prehistory. Since the s, archaeologists have believed that our ancestors, modern humans, migrated by foot out of Africa in a single exodus around , years ago, passing through the Middle East and Asia to contemporary Indonesia.
But unlike earlier humanoids, which had made the same journey, homo sapiens was able to go further, making the kilometre boat journey to Sahul the ancient continent linking Australia, Tasmania and Papua New Guinea, before the rising sea levels to their current point.
The construction of boats and navigation of the seas is the earliest moment in prehistory involving a level of language ability, navigational skill, and technological capacity that we can regard as distinctively human. To ask when humans reached Australia is almost to ask when humans became human.
Even more recently, extensive archaeological research in southern Victoria has suggested that people might have lived in Australia for , years — twice as long as the broadly accepted timeframe for human habitation. Using thermal luminescence analysis, they studied blackened stones that indicated human usage of fire.
Though the researchers were cautious in their conclusions, the study opens up the possibility of indigenous habitation going back , years. For all the articles Odyssey Traveller has published for mature aged and senior travellers, click through on this link. We acknowledge Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples as the First Australians and Traditional Custodians of the lands where we live, learn and work. We pay our respects to Elders past, present and emerging.
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